Monday, 11 June 2012

Shaykh al-Hadith Yunus Jaunpuri (db)

Al Salamu 'Alaykum.
By the efforts and grace of Shaykh al-Hadith Hanif Luharvi and Mawlana Abu Uzair Junaid, this worthless servant had the opportunity to meeting and shaking hands with Shaykh Yunus Jaunpuri (db), Shaykh al-Hadith of Mazahir al-'Uloom, Saharanpur yesterday. A Jalsa was organised in Shaykh Hanif's Madrasa in Kharod, Gujarat for the Khatm-e-Bukhari of the students. Afterwards, despite his obvious ill health, Shaykh Yunus spoke for about 45 minutes to the students. It was a very academic talk, most of which I could not understand. May Allah make the 'ilm of the Deen easy for us and may he lengthen the shadow of the 'Ulama-e-Haqq on us. Thanks are due to Shaykh Hanif and Mawlana Junaid. May Allah bless them with His friendship.
Wa salam.

Friday, 8 June 2012

Hadrat 'Umar: The Best Of Friends.

Al Salamu 'Alaykum.
In old, worn out shabby looking clothes, Amir Al-Mu’minin, Ali Bin Abi Talib, sat saying grace to Allah. Abu Maryam, one of the servants, sat on his knees close to `Ali and whispered: “Amir Al-Mu’minin, I have something to ask of you.” `Ali said: “What is it that you want to ask?”
Abu Maryam said: “That you throw away the clothes you are wearing. They are old and ripped and do not go well with your position.”
`Ali Bin Abi Taleb put the tip of his clothes on his eyes and started to cry until his weeping was loud. In embarrassment, Abu Maryam said: “O Amir Al-Mu’minin, if I knew that it meant so much to you I would not have asked you to take it off.” `Ali said while wiping his tears: “O Abu Maryam, my love for this jacket is increasing. It was a gift from my friend and beloved companion.”
Oddly, Abu Maryam asked: “And who is this friend of yours O Amir?” `Ali said: “ ‘Umar Ibn Al Khattab. He was the best of friends.”
He then started to weep once again until the sound of his suppressed cries could be heard from afar.
"100 Stories from the Life of Ali Bin Abi Taleb" by Muhammad Siddeeq Al Minshawi, Dar Al Fadeela Publishing, 2002.

Saturday, 2 June 2012

Use Islamic Injunctions To Establish Just Economy

Hyderabad: A first of its kind open lecture session on Islamic Economics was conducted in Hyderabad by POINTE (Platform for Occidental, oriental and Islamic Networking in studying and Teaching Economics) on 27th May 2012, at the Institute of Public Enterprise, Osmania University Campus, Hyderabad. The topic of the lecture session was ‘Introductory Lecture on Islamic Economics – An Institutional Perspective for Inclusive and Universal Wellbeing’.
Opening the lecture session Mr Shashi Bhushan, General Manager, Institutional Learning exhorted the Muslim community to study the institutions practiced by the erstwhile successful Muslim regimes and strive to be successful rather than be exploited.
He advised Muslims to use the injunctions of the Qur’an to establish a judicious economy.
During his tenure in the World Bank and in his close foundational association with Al-Khair Co-operative Credit Society, Lucknow and Sahulat Microfinance Institution, New Delhi, he found that Muslims seriously lacked in academic and vocational qualifications in spite of having necessary skills and attitude.
He wanted the Muslim community to adopt and use technology for their upliftment.
The main lecture on Islamic Economics was delivered by Dr. Lubna Sarwath, Ph.D.[Indonesia]. Dr. Sarwath is associated with the Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia.
She runs the city-based Shausaa’ Foundation and is the Director of POINTE. Through her power point presentation she explained how the law of unity of knowledge is deduced as the world view from the transcendental concept of Oneness or Unity of God(Tauhid).
Premising on the episteme of unity of knowledge Dr. Sarwath illustrated her categorization of knowledge and de-knowledge or unified knowledge and de-unified knowledge. She defined institutions as a media for reinforcing and giving sustainability to an episteme laden policy.
She suggested establishing of Consultative Participatory Institutions (CPIs) which have substance (theme); organizational form; recursive functional knowledge-building and learning process, evaluation criteria and self-sustainability as the characteristics.
Institutionalizing CPIs would ensure that every other factor or variable would be represented at each recursive policy or decision-making process thus generating unified knowledge. Deunified knowledge formed from institutions without the CPI characteristics is leading to chaos in the society both the human and non-human world systems, she said.
She highlighted various socio-economic institutions from the Qur’an such as Zakat (dues or rich towards poor), Sadaqah (charity), Infaq(spending), Hisbah (Administration), Shura (Mutual consultation), Tijarah (Trade), Riba (taking more than due), Maslaha (wellbeing). She explained that the socio-economic institutional interpretations from the Qur’an are meant for the benefit of the humanity. Achieving wellbeing and translating the Qur’anic injunctions to reality for the wellbeing is more important than using the tag of ‘Islamic’ she clarified.
Taken from two circles.

Tuesday, 29 May 2012

Muhammad Ismat Tops All-India CBSE Exams.

IMPHAL/GUWAHATI: A Manipuri boy Mohammad Ismat scored the highest marks in the All India Senior Secondary Certificate Examination ( AISSCE) conducted by the CBSE, whose results were declared nationwide on Monday. Ishmat, a student of Imphal's Zenith Academy, scored 495 out of 500 marks.
Though there is no concept of toppers in the CBSE class XII examinations, KK Choudhury regional officer CBSE (northeast region) confirmed that this is the first time a student from the northeast has scored highest in all India level. "It is indeed great. We hope this is the beginning and we get more such brilliant students from the region every year," he said.
Ismat has got 100 marks each in mathematics, chemistry and fine arts while he scored 98 in English and 97 in physics. In his additional subject home sciences he scored 100 marks.
A student of Zenith Academy, Imphal, Ishmat has always been a brilliant student. As the news of Ishmat scoring the highest, the school went into a celebration mode. His success came despite academic calendar every year is disrupted due to bandhs and blockades.
Hailing from a poor Manipuri Muslim family in Lilong Haoreibi village in Manipur's Thoubal district, Ismat's father Md Bashirur Rahman, a government primary school teacher, had struggled to ensure Ismat a good education.
Ismat began his primary education at a local school in Lilong before switching over to Kendriya Vidyalaya, Imphal up to class VIII. He then joined Sainik School Imphal from where he scored 94.2 percent in class X CBSE examination. But, he could not continue in Sainik School as his parent could afford the fees.
"After passing class X with high marks I thought of studying in the best school in Imphal. But I could not due to the acute financial difficulties faced by my family. All is not lost when S M Singh, the management secretary of Zenith Academy accepted my request to study in the school without charging much fees. With his guidance, I have come out with flying colours," Ismat said.
"Impossible is not in my mind and I have the strong conviction that everything is possible when a man determined to do what mankind can do. And this is the only tool for me to top in this national level examination," a jubilant Ismat told TOI minutes after the results were declared.
Taken from:

Sunday, 27 May 2012

Aisha Mustafa Invents Spacecraft Propulsion System!

Al Salamu 'Alaykum.

London: A 19-year-old Egyptian university student has invented a futuristic propulsion system for spacecraft. The invention "leapfrogs" NASA research, and uses a hi-tech quantum effect to drive satellites through space, rather than ordinary rocket engines.Aisha Mustafa's invention generates energy using the Casimir-Polder force, an obscure quantum effect using two surfaces and objects in a vacuum, Daily Mail reported Wednesday.

The force is described as an "invisible rubber band" between bulky objects and atoms that arises from the ever-present random fluctuation of microscopic electric fields in empty space. The fluctuations get stronger near a surface, and an isolated neutral atom nearby feels the force as a "pull". Instead of using nuclear reactors or jets, Mustafa's satellites could generate drive using the panels, the Mail added. NASA had researched a similar idea using the Casimir-Polder force.
Taken from Here

Thursday, 24 May 2012

CIA Agent Sentenced For 33 Years.

Al Salamu 'Alaykum.
PESHAWAR: The political administration of Khyber Agency on Wednesday convicted Dr Shakil Afridi, the man who helped the CIA track down Osama bin Laden, and awarded him 33 years in jail on charges of treason, officials said.
Dr Afridi was accused of running a fake vaccination campaign in which he collected DNA samples, which may have helped the American intelligence agency find Osama bin Laden in the garrison city of Abbottabad.
An official of political administration in Khyber Agency told The News that the court of Assistant Political Agent (APA), Bara, Mohammad Nasir Khan, found Dr Shakil Afridi guilty and awarded him 33 years imprisonment under Section 11 of the Frontier Crimes Regulation (FCR) and sections 121-A (conspiracy to commit offence against the state), 123 (concealing with intent to facilitate design to wage war against state), 123-A (condemnation of the creation of the state and advocacy of abolition of its sovereignty) and 124 (assaulting president, governor, etc, with the intention to compel or restrain the exercise of any lawful power) of the Pakistan Penal Code (PPC).
The APA awarded 10-year sentence and imposed Rs100,000 fine on the accused under Section 121-A PPC, 11-year sentence and Rs100,000 fine under Section 123 PPC, 10-year sentence with a fine of Rs100,000 under Section 123-A PPC and a three-year sentence with fine of Rs20,000 under Section 124 PPC, read with Section 11 of the FCR.
The APA, who was acting as executive and judicial officer at the same time, on the recommendations of the Qaumi Jirga, also announced a fine of Rs320,000 on the accused. Dr Shakil will have to undergo an additional term of three years if he fails to pay the fine. After the sentence, the political administration shifted the convict to the Central Prison, Peshawar, amid tight security. The APA said that Shakil Afridi had been in the custody of political administration and his trial was held under the FCR within two weeks.
On March 29, the Health Department terminated Dr Shakil Afridi from service for organising an unauthorised US-sponsored vaccination campaign in Abbottabad to collect the DNA samples of the people living in the compound where al-Qaeda chief Osama bin Laden lived with his family. The provincial government acted on a summary received in August from the health directorate of Federally Administered Tribal Areas, which was not authorised to initiate an inquiry against an officer above Grade 18.
The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Health Department, in its notification, stated that Shakil Afridi had been terminated under the Efficiency & Disciplinary (E&D) Rules for being involved in anti-state activities. Prior to his termination, 15 lady health workers, who were a part of the vaccination campaign, were also terminated from their jobs.
Dr Shakil Afridi was arrested by security agencies in July 2011, about two months after Osama bin Laden was killed by US commandos in Abbottabad, and his whereabouts were unknown to his family members. After his conviction, the authorities in Khyber Agency claimed that he was in their custody.

Sunday, 20 May 2012

The Mosque That Sheltered Jews.

The Mosque That Sheltered Jews

"Their children are like our own children"

"Yesterday at dawn, the Jews of Paris were arrested. The old, the women, and the children. In exile like ourselves, workers like ourselves. They are our brothers. Their children are like our own children. The one who encounters one of his children must give that child shelter and protection for as long as misfortune - or sorrow - lasts. Oh, man of my country, your heart is generous."
- A tract read to immigrant Algerian workers in Paris, asking them to help shelter Jewish children.

by Annette Herskovits

There is in the center of Paris a handsome mosque with a tall slender minaret and lovely gardens. It was built in the 1920s, as an expression of gratitude from France for the over half-million Muslims from its African possessions who fought alongside the French in the 1914-1918 war. About 100,000 of them died in the trenches.

During World War II, when the Germans occupied France, the mosque sheltered resistance fighters and North Africans who had escaped from German POW camps. (The French recruited 340,000 North African troops into the French army in 1939.) When the French police started rounding up Jews and delivering them to the German occupiers, the mosque sheltered Jews as well, most of them children.

The Nazi program called for eliminating all Jews, of any age. More than 11,600 Jewish children under 16, including 2,000 younger than six, were deported from France to be murdered at camps in eastern Europe. Still, 83 percent of the Jewish children living in France in 1939 survived. Most were "hidden," that is, given non-Jewish identities to keep them out of the authorities' reach. This required massive help from the French people.
Hiding children entailed a complex, extended organization. Rescuers had to get hold of the children, which often meant kidnapping them from detention centers or Jewish children's homes in full view of the Nazi occupiers. They had to procure false papers, find shelter (in foster homes, boarding schools, convents), raise funds to pay for upkeep, and send the payments without attracting attention.

They had to keep records, in code, of the children's true and false names and whereabouts, bring the children to their hiding places in small groups, and visit them regularly to ascertain that they were well treated. Many who participated in this work - both Jews and non-Jews - perished.

Innumerable French citizens provided aid of a less active kind: they remained silent, even when they suspected the children were fugitives. Many of the children were recent immigrants who spoke French with an accent and did not "look" French. A child might disclose his or her true name when surprised - or in defiance. Most at risk were very young children who needed repeated coaching.

I know this because I was a hidden child. When my parents were deported from Paris to Auschwitz in June of 1943, never to return, my 13-year-old sister and myself, just turned four, were in a foster home in the French countryside. With no more money coming for our keep and the danger to people sheltering Jews, our foster parents balked at keeping us. In the fall, I found myself hiding in a shabby Paris hotel room with my 17-year-old brother. My sister became a maid for a French family.

But by winter, thanks to my brother's astuteness and courage, my sister and I were taken in charge by a clandestine child rescue network, a secular organization in which Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, and communist men and women participated. The organization saved 500 children, including my sister and me. As for my brother, he survived by his wits.
I learned of Muslims who helped rescue Jewish children only recently, in the newsletter of Enfants CachŽs (Hidden Children), an association of Jews who survived the Holocaust in France as children.

The mosque-based resistance network consisted of people from Algeria's mountainous Kabylia regions. Kabyls are one of several North-African groups who have preserved their Berber language and culture; the Berbers inhabited North Africa before the Arabs invaded and introduced Islam in the 7th century. At least 95 percent of Algerian immigrants to France came from Kabylia. The network's Kabyls communicated in their Berber dialect, Tamazight, making infiltration almost impossible.

The soul of the network was the mosque's rector, Si Kaddour Benghabrit, a man with three nationalities - Algerian, Moroccan, and French - who moved with ease in all three worlds, and whose Islam was tolerant and inclusive.

More than 1,700 people are thought to have found short-term shelter in apartments on or near the grounds of the mosque. Benghabrit set up an alert system that allowed fugitives to disappear swiftly in case of a raid - if necessary to the prayer room's women's section, where men were normally not admitted. He wrote numerous false birth certificates making Jewish children into Muslims.

Access to Paris's sewers directly beneath the mosque's grounds provided an escape path, as did the mosque's proximity to the city's central wine market on the Seine, where barges laden with wine barrels came and went. One woman recalled being taken out of Paris on a barge; a Kabyl at the helm took fugitives concealed in his cargo to the south of France, where they could be smuggled to Algeria or Spain.

The French League against Racism and Antisemitism has asked Israel's Yad Vashem Institute to recognize Benghabrit as one of "The Righteous among the Nations," a title honoring non-Jews who risked their lives to rescue Jews during the Holocaust. Benghabrit would be the first Muslim to earn this distinction.

In these times of mutual hatred, a hatred that is sustained by distorted views of the "other," the story of Muslims saving Jewish children struck me as one Jews and Arabs especially should hear. This history strengthens my sense that mutuality and harmony make up the natural fabric of human relations. Division and cruelty are like torn places in that fabric. Surely, at certain times and places the tearing can be so thorough that it seems the fabric is not there. But that is an illusion.

My friend Mathis Szykowski, also a Holocaust survivor and a hidden child, testifies to this: "It must be said and repeated that in any account of survival, there are many people who will help, at great risk to themselves, people who appear almost mysteriously, whom you trust instinctively. No one can survive such circumstances by themselves. So it becomes obvious that in life as in death, we are all interdependent." A human being whose mind has not been distorted by ideology will instinctively help another in danger, especially a child.
Again and again over the years, I have heard stories of help that appeared unexpectedly, almost mysteriously, during those dark days. A friend recalls that when she was 11, living in Czechoslovakia, her parents were taken away by the Gestapo. By chance, she and her nine-year-old sister had been left behind, so they went to Gestapo headquarters themselves and told the guard they wanted to be reunited with their parents. The guard said "Go away!" several times, speaking softly so as not to be overheard, until they left. Somehow they survived. The SS guard had saved their lives.

Enmities between peoples come and go depending on intricate historical, psychological, and economic forces. Political powers will conceal or twist reality to suit their own ends. For most of the 1400 years since Islam's birth, Jews and Muslims lived in relative harmony in Arab lands.

Like the Christians, Jews were dhimmis (protected people): Islam protected their lives, property, and right to worship. Jews enjoyed no such rights in the Christian world until the French Revolution. To be sure, dhimmis were placed below Muslims - they had to pay a special tax, could not ride horses, etc. - but the application of these restrictions varied; with enlightened rulers, the Jews prospered.

In his book Le Passe d'une Discorde: Juifs et Arabes du VIIe SiŽcle ‡ nos Jours (The Days Before the Breach: Jews and Arabs from the 7th Century to Today), Israeli historian Michel Abitbol writes about "the historical drama which, in less than half a century, ended two thousand years of Jewish life in the Arab countries." And he describes the "resplendent Judeo-Arab civilization, one whose inexhaustible intellectual and religious riches nourished the entire Jewish world until the dawn of modern times."

On July 16, 1942, Paris police set out to arrest 28,000 Jews on orders of the French Vichy collaborationist government. They had in hand names and addresses, obtained from a census of Jews the Germans had ordered soon after they occupied France. That day and the next, the police fanned out through the city, packing the arrested Jews into requisitioned city buses. They found only 13,000 - largely because some police officers had spread the word ahead of time and many Jews had fled. More than 4,000 children aged 2 to 16 were among those arrested.

On the second day, a tract was circulated through the miserable hotels that were home to immigrant Algerian workers. The tract, in Tamazight, was read out loud to the mostly illiterate men: "Yesterday at dawn, the Jews of Paris were arrested. The old, the women, and the children. In exile like ourselves, workers like ourselves. They are our brothers. Their children are like our own children. The one who encounters one of his children must give that child shelter and protection for as long as misfortune - or sorrow - lasts. Oh, man of my country, your heart is generous."
We can't know how much help these men were able to give.

Most of the children captured in that July raid were taken with their mothers to camps near Paris. There, French police used truncheons and water hoses to separate mothers from the younger children, 
taken to Drancy (the French camp from where trains departed for the east) and then deported to Auschwitz. The 3,500 younger children left behind had been taken on the initiative of Vichy's prime minister, Pierre Laval - the Germans had not requested it. The Vichy government waited for Berlin to authorize their deportation. When approval came, the children were packed into boxcars, each with a few adults. All were killed in the gas chambers on arrival.

The thought of such moments of ultimate darkness used to obscure the entire world for me. As I have pieced together the many stories I have heard and read over the years, I became able to simultaneously see light shining in many places. The story of the Muslims who saved Jewish children is one that affirmed that vision.

The words of the Kabyl tract read to poor immigrant men taught me to trust whispers of unity: Those dead children are like myself. They are like my own children. So are the Israeli children killed in bombed-out buses. So are Iraqi children lost as "collateral damage" and the million Palestinian children who every day must struggle with fear - of Israeli soldiers with machine guns, tanks, bulldozers, helicopters, rockets - and the many dead and wounded among them.

Taken from 

Saturday, 12 May 2012

Imam Rabbani & Shaami.

Al Salamu 'Alaykum.
“Once when Mawlana (Rashid Ahmad) Gangohi (rah) dictated an answer giving a reference to Shaami, a scholar objected that the ruling was certainly not in it. Hadrat asked for the book to be brought to him whereas he was blind by this time. Passing his hands over the breadth of the book, he made a rough estimation, turned to a page and said, 'Look at the bottom of the left page.'
It was exactly as he had stated."
Taken from ‘Ulama of Deoband by Madrasah Arabia Islamia, Azadville, SA.

Thursday, 10 May 2012

Become A Friend Of Allah.

Is zamaane mein Waliullah banne ke 3 aasaan raaste:

1. Faraidh ki pabandi.

2. Haraam rizq se bachhna.

3. Aankhon ki hifazat.


Three easy ways of becoming a Friend of Allah in these times:

1. Punctuality and persistence in the essentials of Islam.

2. Saving one's self from illicit earnings.

3. Lowering the gaze.

Hakim Akhtar(db) through Mawlana Abu Uzair. 

Wa'laykum al-Salam.

Thursday, 3 May 2012

The Little Shaykh Is Here.

The Little Shaykh Is Here.

Nadr al-Hilali said that when he was in the class of Sufyan ibn 'Uyayna, a child entered at whom the students glanced in disgust. Ibn ‘Uyayna said to them, “You were like this too. Allah has favored you.” To Nadr he said, “You should have seen me when I was ten years old. I was just a hand span then,  my face was like a dinar and I was like a spark of fire. I attended the gatherings of the scholars of different towns like Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri and ‘Amr ibn Dinar……People would comment, ‘The little Shaykh is here.’”
Al Kifayah pg. 60-61. 

Imam Ibn ‘Uyayna also used to say to his students, “When I went to the classes of Ibn Shihab Zuhri, I had earrings in my ears and a ponytail on my head. He saw me and said, ‘Sit down here. Here!  I have never seen a younger scholar.’”

Taken from “Achievements of Muslim Women in the Religious and Scholarly Fields” by Qadi Athar Mubarakpuri.

Monday, 30 April 2012

Sea Of Muslims At AIMPLB's Convention

Mumbai: The 22nd convention of All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB) which began in Mumbai Friday, ended late in the evening on Sunday with a mammoth gathering at Azad Maidan pledging to sacrifice everything in order to save the constitutional rights of Muslims.
Speakers, first for two days in different sessions at Haj House and later at the public meeting at Azad Maidan on Sunday, asserted that the board will force the government to amend the Right to Education Act (RTE), scrap the direct taxes code bill and bring changes in the wakf amendment bill 2010.
The speakers also urged the government to allow prayers at hundreds of the mosques which are under the of custody of the ASI. "Fresh dangers are looming large as the government of the day seems to usurp the Sharia laws. But the government should note that we will sacrifice our lives but will not tolerate any interference in the Sharia", All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB) president Mohammad Rabey Hasani Nadvi said.
"India is a democratic country where people from all religions are given constitutional rights to practice as per their faith and belief. But attempts are on to deny Muslim their constitutional rights. It will not be tolerated", he said.
Recalling the rights given by the Muslim rulers to everyone in India, Prof Shakil Samdani, Professor of Law at Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) said, "You are reciprocating with what the Muslims had given to this country hundreds of years back. This is not a favor to the community."
Raising the issue of the mosques under the ASI custody, Syed Salman Husaini Nadvi said, "Drinking wine is permitted here but faithful cannot offer their prayers. What can be more shameful than this?"
Demanding amendments in RTE Act, Abdur Rahim Qureishi, assistant general secretary of AIMPLB, said, "There are provisions in the RTE Act that deny our right to establish and run religious and educational institutions. We will make it a mass movement unless this Act is amended."
Attacking the tax bill, Qureishi said that taxing places of worship was tantamount to interference in the religious affairs of all communities. "The Bill will affect not only the mosques, but places of worship of all religions," he added. The AIMPLB also rubbished reports that one of the organizers of the board's meeting, Khair-e-Ummat Trust, was a front for the banned Students Islamic Movement of India (SIMI). Denying that the Khair-e-Ummat Trust, a Dongri-based registered NGO, had any links with SIMI, the trust's secretary, Ibrahim Khalil Abedi, said that the news was "baseless and defamatory."
Stating that AIMPLB's office in Mumbai is located at the Khair-e-Ummat Trust building, Qureishi alleged, "This is part of the conspiracy to defame and denigrate a Muslim organization which provides scholarships and medical help to the poor."
UP CM Akhilesh Yadav won praise from the board members as he has assured the AIMPLB president Mulana Rabe Hasan Nadvi that the proposed law in his state which deprives married women of their rights in fathers' agricultural property will exclude Muslims. Copies of Akhilesh's letter to Maulana Nadvi were also distributed among the 400-odd members from across the country.
aaThe 3-day convention was inaugurated on Friday with the opening session held at the Haj House. People from various parts of Maharashtra and the neighboring states converged at Mumbai to attend the AIMPLB historic convention.

Saturday, 28 April 2012

Tere Aazaad Bande

Maqaam-e-be_baha hai dard soz-e-aarzumandi
Maqaam-e-bandagi dekar na loon shaan-e-Khudawandi
Yeh faizan-e-nazar tha ya ki maktab ki karaamat thi
Sikhayi kisne Isma'eel ko aadaab-e-farzandi
Tere azaad bandon ki na ya dunya na wo dunya
Yahan marne ki paabandi, wahan jeene ki paabandi

Friday, 27 April 2012

Allah's Throne Shook At His Death!

Al Salamu 'Alaykum.

Narrated Jabir: I heard the Prophet (saw) saying, “The Throne (of Allah) shook at the death of Sa'ad ibn Mu'adh.” Through another group of narrators, Jabir added, “I heard the Prophet (saw) saying, ‘The Throne of the Most Beneficent shook because of the death of Sa'ad ibn Mu'adh.” 
Sahih Al-Bukhari.

Narrated Ibn 'Umar that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: “This (i.e. Sa'ad ibn Mu'adh) is the one at whose death the Throne shook, the gates of heaven were opened for him and seventy thousand angels attended his funeral. It (his grave) squeezed him once then released him.”
Sunan Al-Nas'aai.

Wednesday, 25 April 2012

Fiqh & Fatawa Of Women Scholars.

Fiqh & Verdicts of Women Scholars
Many female scholars were also jurists and givers of edicts. They excelled in this and the Muslims relied on them completely. Ibn Qayyim says that twenty two Companions were well-known in the subjects of Law and Ifta’. Seven of them were mothers of the believers. Sayyida ‘Ayesha had the title of Faqiha al-Ummah. Zaynab bint Abu Salama was also a leading jurist. 
Shaykh ‘Alauddin Samarqandi was a well known Hanafi jurist and scholar and writer of Tuhfa al-Fuqaha. His daughter Fatima was a great Faqiha and her husband, Shaykh ‘Alauddin Kasani wrote al-Bada’i al-Sana’i, an exposition of Tuhfa al-Fuqaha. Whenever he hesitated she corrected him and she also issued edicts with her father and husband. The verdicts bore the signatures of all three. 

The daughter of Qadi Abu ‘Abdullah Husayn ibn Isma’il Mahamili, ‘Amat al-Wahid Satayta heard hadith from her father and from Isma’il ibn ‘Abbbas Warraq ‘Abdul Ghafir ibn Salama Hamza, Abu’l Hasan Misri, Hamza Hashmi and others. She was very learned and righteous and had acquired proficiency in the laws of inheritance, accounts, grammar, other sciences and arts. But most of all, she had had memorized the Qur’an and fiqh. She was perfect in the fiqh of the Shafi’ school and used to issue verdicts with Shaykh Abu ‘Ali ibn Abu Hurayra. Ibn Jawzi has written about Bint Mahamili that she was a talented scholar and the greatest of those who had memorized the Shafi’ school of law. Thus, she had no equal in Shafi’ fiqh. 

The Faqiha and Muftiha Umm Uyusiya, her sister Fatima and the grandmother of Shaykh Zawraq, Faqiha Umm al-Baneen were three prominent women of West Asqa’ in Fiqh and Fatwa. 

Umm ‘Isa bint Ibrahim ibn Ishaq Baghdadiya was a scholar in Baghdad. Khatib says that she was an accomplished scholar and issued edicts on juristic questions. Ibn Jawzi confirms this. 
The daughter of Shaykh Taqiuddin Ibrahim ibn ‘Ali Wasiti, ‘Amat al-Rahman was distinguished in fiqh and fatawa. She was known as Sitt al-Fuqaha’. The same can be said of Sharifa, sister of Amir Sayyid Sharif ‘Alauddin ‘Ali ibn Khatib Sharfuddin Ahmad. Umm Zaynab Fatima bint ‘Abbas Baghdadiya was a highly talented scholar, an ascetic, a content woman and the leader of the women of her times.

The sister of Faqih Yusuf ibn Yahya Andalusi, Fatima bint Yahya Andalusiyya Qurtubiyya was an accomplished scholar, very Allah-fearing and simple woman who was also a jurist. Her popularity can be guaged by the unprecedented number of people who attended her funeral.

Taken with corrections from ‘Achievements of Muslim Women in the Religious and Scholarly Fields’ by Qadi Athar Mubarakpuri.

Monday, 23 April 2012

Kitab al-Maraseel.

Kitab al-Maraseel of Imam Abu Dawood

According to the later scholars (muta’akhireen), mursal is that hadith in whose chain a Companion (Sahabi) is not mentioned i.e. a Follower (Tabi’i) says that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said…..)
The rest of the chain from the compiler (Musannif) till the Sub-companion (Tabi’i) is continuous (Muttasil) with no one left out. If on the other hand any narrator between the compiler and the Follower is left out, then that tradition is called munqati’. However according to the earlier scholars (Mutaqaddimeen) both the above ahadith are called Mursal.
Imam Abu Dawood is from the Mutaqaddimeen. Hence he has included both kinds of ahadith in his Kitab al-Maraseel. Some jurists (fuqaha’) accept both Mursal and Munqati’ narrations as evidence. Some only accept mursal while others reject both. Since the Imam’s intention in compiling his Sunan was to gather all the proofs of the jurists he only accept Marfu’ narrations therein since these are accepted as evidence unanimously. (Marfu’ narrations are those whose chain from the author to the Prophet(saw) is intact)
He then gathered all the Mursal and Munqati’ traditions in a separate book as an addendum to Kitab al-Sunan. Imam Abu Dawood then wrote to the scholars of Makkah, “In the past, all our scholars unanimously accepted Maraseel as conclusive evidence. Great Imams like Maalik, Sufyan al-Thawri and Awza’i were of this opinion. The first person to voice an opinion in this regard was Shafi’i. After him, Ahmad and others followed suit. However, it is my opinion that if in any mas’ala there is no Musnad or Marfu’ narration, then a Mursal or Munqati’ hadith may be accepted as proof even though they are not equal to the former. He further elaborated, “all these ahadith are mursal according to my findings. It is possible that others may have the same narrations with a continuous chain.”
The Imam gathered 600 Maraseel as a part of his Sunan. Later on some people published it separately without the chains of narrators for brevity. This came to be known as Mukhtasar Kitab al-Maraseel. Its contents are the same, only the chains have been removed.
Adapted from “The Biography of Imam Abu Dawood Sijistani”, edited by Mufti A.H.Elias.

Sunday, 15 April 2012

Imam Bukhari's Criticism Of Imam Abu Hanifa.

Imam Bukhari Criticizes Imam Abu Hanifah: An Analysis
By Pir Syed Mushtaq 'Ali Shah
Translated by Ebrahim Saifuddin

This claim is a matter of much bravery and courage because no such saying of Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه can be presented to back up this claim. This claim is but the result of jealousy, malice and enmity where whatever the heart desires is said. What can one call this if not a result of malice?

Hafidh Ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz Ibn Abi Rawwaad رحمة اللہ علیه spoke the truth with sagacity which was noted down by Ibn Hajar Makki رحمة اللہ علیه in Khayraatul Hisaan pg.35:
“Hafidh Ibn ‘Abdul ‘Aziz Ibn Abi Rawwaad said that whosoever loves Imam Abu Hanifah is a Sunni and whoever has malice in his heart for him does Bid’ah. It is stated in a narration that Imam Abu Hanifah is between us and the people of the past. Thus whosoever loves him is from the People of Sunnah and whosoever has malice against him is from the People of Innovation.”
Some Ghair Muqallideen (people who refuse to follow one of the 4 established schools of Law) lead the common man astray by saying that Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has written in his book Kitab al-Du’afaa: “(Imam Abu Hanifah) was a Murjee' and the people adopted silence from narrating from him.”

In reply to this I say that firstly the book 'al-Du’afaa' by Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه, published in Agra Allahabad, does not contain any such sentence. The same is not found in Adab al-Mufrad, Juzul Qira’ah and Khalqul ‘Ibad either. Even if it is taken to be true, the reply is that Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه had enmity of mathhab towards Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه which is apparent in the writings of Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه. Thus this jarh cannot be accepted on the basis of enmity of mathhab. That is why Thahabi, Ibn Hajar, Wasiuddin Khizaji and others رحمة اللہ علیھم did not give any importance to this Jarh and did not even mention it by considering it “لا یعبا به”.

Secondly, regarding the saying that Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه was a Murjee', the meaning has to be established. If by Murjee' those were referred on whom be Allah’s Curse, then this is absolutely wrong because it is stated in Fiqh al-Akbar:

“We do not say like the Murjee'ah that it is for certain that our good deeds are accepted and sins are forgiven. We say that whosoever does good deeds with all the right conditions, provided he does not make them void and dies in the state of Iman, then Allah will not let go his good deeds to waste and will reward him accordingly by accepting his deeds.”

It is stated in Khayrat al-Hisaan, pg 73, it is stated:

“The Commentator of al-Mawaqif mentions that Ghisaan Murjee' used to say things so that it would seem that Imam Abu Hanifah was a Murjee' and he used to include Imam Abu Hanifah in the Murjee'ah sect. Ghisaan deliberately accused Imam Abu Hanifah to legitimize his mathhab.

Shehristani, in al-Milal wal Nihal, has said that it is astonishing how Ghisaan used to attribute the teachings of his Murjeea'h sect to Imam Abu Hanifah and would call him a Murjee'ah. He has lied.”

And if by Murjee'ah it is meant Murjee'ah Marhoomah then all of Ahl al-Sunnah wal Jama’ah is included in it. It is mentioned in al-Tamheed of Abu Shakoor Salimi:

“There are two types of Murjee'ah. One is Murjee'ah Marhoomah and it is the Companions of Rasulullah. The second is Murjee'ah Mal’oonah and these are those who say that sins do not matter and there is no punishment for them. ‘Uthman bin Abi Laila once wrote a letter to Imam Abu Hanifah asking if he is from the Murjee'ah. Imam Abu Hanifah replied that there are two types of Murjee'ah. One is Murjeeah Mal’oonah and I am not from them. The other is Murjee'ah Marhoomah and I am from them. In fact, the Anbiya علیھم السلام were also the same. Do you not know the saying of ‘Isa علیه السلام, ‘If You (Allah) punish them, they are Your slaves after all, but if You forgive them, You are the Mighty, the Wise.’

Thus it is learnt that Imam Bukhari’s رحمة اللہ علیه saying regarding people not accepting the Hadith and opinion of Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه is absolutely false and baseless.

Thirdly, in ‘Uqud al-Jawahir al-Manifa, the book of Hafidh Mosuli, al-Du’afaa is quoted to state:

“Yahya bin Ma’een has said, ‘I have not found anyone superior to Waki’ and he used to give fatwa on the qawl of Abu Hanifah and would memorize all his Ahadith. He heard a lot of Ahadith from Abu Hanifah.’”

And it is stated in Manaqib Kurdi, pg 100: “Sa’eed bin Yahya bin Humayri Wasti was an Imam and Hafidh of Hadith from Wasta. He has narrated from Imam Abu Hanifah and has acquired knowledge from him. He used to say that Imam Abu Hanifah is an ocean of knowledge.”

And in the same Manaqib on pg 19 it is stated:

“’Abdullah bin Yazeed al-Muqri Makki heard 900 Hadith from Imam Abu Hanifah.”

In Khayrat al-Hisaan, pg 23, it is stated:

“Ibn al-Mubarak said, ‘He (Abu Hanifah) used to be the one with most knowledge in Fiqh, and I have not seen anyone more knowledgeable than him in Fiqh. . . .And he is the most knowledgeable amongst them (Imam Malik and Sufyan) and a better Muhaqqiq and Mudaqqiq.’”

“Abu Yusuf al-Thawri says, ‘I follow Imam Abu Hanifah in majority of issues.’”

“Yahya bin Sa’eed Qattan says, ‘We have not heard an opinion better than that of Imam Abu Hanifah and thus we give fatwa on his qawl.’”

“Ibn al-Mubarak says, ‘I have seen Mis'ar ask questions and benefit from the study circles of Imam Abu Hanifah.’”

In Khayrat al-Hisaan, pg 26, it is stated by Ibn Jarir رحمة اللہ علیه:

“The second chapter is regarding those who acquired Hadith and Fiqh from Abu Hanifah and to assess their number is impossible.”

“This is the reason why some ‘Ulema state that amongst the A’immah of Islam, no one has as many students as Imam Abu Hanifah.”

Look at this with justice and without any bias. Waki’, Ibn Yahya al-Wasti, Ibn al-Mubarak, Sufyan al-Thawri, Mis'ar bin Kudam, Yahya bin Sa’eed al-Qattan and others have spoken so highly about the Fiqh and Opinion of Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه. Thousands have acquired Hadith and Fiqh from Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه and have become famous by his blessing in the world.

As is seen in Manaqib al-Kurdari and Manqib Mawafiq of Ibn Ahmad al-Makki.

Despite of this, Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه says,
“سکتوا عن رأيه و حدیثا”
If this is not out of malice due to Mathhab then what is it?
Fourthly, If, according to Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه, a narrator should be left and nothing should be taken from him if he is a Murjee', then due to what reason did Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه include in his Sahih, Ahadith from deviant sects like Murjee'ah, Nasibiyah, Kharijiyah, Shi’a, Jahmiyah, Qadariyah and others? Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, in Muqaddamah Fath al-Bari, has written this in detail name by name. Over here we will mention the total number of people from four of these deviant sects.

Murjee'ah 31;

Shi’a 2;

Qadariyah 28;

Nasibiyah 5.
Then according to the standards of Ghair Muqallideen, does Sahih Bukhari not become the weakest of all books?
Now that the topic of the narrators of Bukhari has been touched, it is only appropriate to talk about some of these narrators. The world knows that Sahih Bukhari has been accepted as ‘Asahhul Kutub’ unanimously (which means that as a collection it has collectively more sahih ahadith; this does not mean that each and every hadith of Bukhari is most authentic when compared to other ahadith found in different collections). It is without any doubt that Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has put in a lot of effort in it which is worthy of much praise. May Allah (swt) accept his effort.
However, it has many narrators on whom different types of Jarh have been done. Examples are given below:
(a) Kathhab: Extreme liar
(b) Yakthibul Hadith: Lies in matters of Hadith
(c) Yasriqul Hadith: Steals Hadith
(d) Yadha’ul Hadith: Invents Hadith
It is seen that the highest form of Jarh is also included. Fathul Bari and Meezanul I’tidaal can be referred for more details. They list more than 100 such narrators.
Despite these Jarh, Imam Bukhari did not consider these narrators among those from whom Hadith should not be taken. Instead, he accepted Ahadith from them. And despite this, other Muhadditheen did not deny Sahih Bukhari to be Asahhul Kutub.
Then what is the reason apart from Mathhabi malice that Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه did not take from Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه although no Jarh can be done on him according to the principles of this science?
Thus when this malice is established by clear evidence then what weight can the Jarh of Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه have in regards to Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه?
Fifthly, if the Hadith of narrators, on whom Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has done Jarh, is to be rejected then there are many such narrators taken by Imams Muslim, Nasa`i, Tirmidhi, Abu Dawood and others رحمة اللہ علیھم who should be rejected according to this rule. But the Muhadditheen did not consider such narrators as rejected. Then why should Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه be rejected due to the Jarh of Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه?
In ‘Kitab al-Du’afa’, Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has said that 'Uways Qarni’s sanad is doubtful (فی اسنادہ نظر) and this Jarh, according to the rules of Bukhari, is a serious one. However, 'Uways Qarni cannot be considered to be Majruh (disparaged).
Sixthly, if Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه relied on his own Jarh, then he would not have narrated from narrators on whom he has done Jarh. There are many such narrators in Bukhari whom Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has declared Majruh. Such narrators are listed below:
1. Usayd bin Zayd al-Jalal – Imam Dhahabi رحمة اللہ علیه has mentioned in al-Meezan, “It is strange that Imam Bukhari has taken narrations from this narrator in his Sahih and has also mentioned him in al-Du’afaa.”
2. ‘Ayyub bin ‘Aa’id – Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has mentioned in his book al-Du’afaa, “He used to prefer the beliefs of Murjee'ah despite being truthful.
3. Thabit bin Muhammad – Imam Dhahabi رحمة اللہ علیه has stated, “Although Imam Bukhari has narrated from this narrator, he has included him in his al-Du’afaa.”
4. Zuhayr bin Muhammad – Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has said in his al-Dhu’afa, “People of Shaam have narrated Munkaraat from him.”
5. Ziyad bin Rasigh – Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه said his sanad is doubtful as is also found in al-Meezan.
6. ‘Ataa Ibn Maimoona – Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه mentioned in his al-Du’afaa, “He used to like the beliefs of Qadariyyah.” And it is mentioned in the Muqaddama of Fathul Bari that many narrators were inclined towards Qadariyyah e.g. Hams bin Minhala. Imam Dhahabi رحمة اللہ علیه has said that he has been accused of being a Qadariyyah and he has Munkar Hadith and that is why Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has included him in al-Du’afaa.
Look at this from an unbiased perspective. If Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه trusted his own Jarh, then why did he narrate from these people? When Imam Bukhari himself does not trust his own Jarh, then it is strange that the Muqallideen of Bukhari trust his Jarh and call Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه weak in Hadith.
Seventhly, if near those who object, the Jarh of Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه, despite being inaccurate and against ‘usuls, is valid in the case of Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه, then why would Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه not be Majruh and rejected?

Is Jarh on Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه not established by A’imma of Hadith?

Of course they are.

Some of them are listed below:
1. Imam Dhuhli رحمة اللہ علیه, the teacher of Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه, has done serious Jarh on him. In Tabqat al-Shafi’iyyah, Vol.12, pg 12, it is stated, “Imam Dhuhli said, ‘He who visits the study circle of Imam Bukhari should not come to us as the people of Baghdad have written to us that Imam Bukhari does kalam in the case of the words of the Qur’an (being created or uncreated) and we told him not to do so. However, he did not listen. Thus do not go to him.’”
Note that not only did Imam Dhuhli رحمة اللہ علیه tell people not to visit Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه but also said that he is an innovator who thinks that the words of the Qur’an, coming out of his mouth are words of the creation. Neither should anyone sit with him nor talk to him. This warning of Imam Dhuhli رحمة اللہ علیه had such a huge impact on people that many stopped meeting Imam Bukhari.
In Tarikh Ibn Khallikaan, Vol.2 pg 123, it is stated, “When a difference arose between Imam Bukhari and Muhammad bin Yahya regarding the words of the Qur’an, he stopped people from going to Bukhari. So much so that Imam Bukhari was compelled to migrate from Nishapur and, apart from Imam Muslim, many people boycotted him.”

2. Imam Muslim رحمة اللہ علیه, despite his closeness to Imam Bukhari, has not narrated a single Hadith from him in his Sahih Muslim. In fact, in the discussion of “’an’ana” Hadith, he has referred to Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه with the word “’asawna” (which means he opposes him in this matter) and has severely criticized him. For reference see Muslim Vol. 1, pg 21.

3. Abu Zur’ah and Abu Hatim رحمة اللہ علیھما have not taken from Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه either. In Tabqaat al-Shafi’iyyah, Vol.1 pg 190, it is mentioned, “Abu Zur’ah and Abu Hatim have left Imam Bukhari because of the difference in the case of the Words of the Qur’an.”

In Meezanul I’tidaal it is stated, “. . . .Abu Zur’ah and Abu Hatim did not narrate from the Imam Bukhari, the student of ‘Ali Ibn al-Madini, because of the dispute regarding the Words of the Qur’an.”
And `Abdur Rahman Ibn Abi Hatim رحمة اللہ علیه says, “Abu Zur’ah left Imam Bukhari due to this reason.”
4. Ibn Mandah رحمة اللہ علیه has categorized Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه amongst the Mudalliseen (such a narrator who conceals the name of his Shaykh or the Shaykh of his Shaykh) in Shuruutul A’immah. Thus he stated, “Bukhari has narrated in his books in these ways: ‘I said to fulan (an unnamed person)’ which is permitted, and ‘Fulan has said this,’ and this is Tadlees.”
It is obvious that Tadlees is a greater defect when compared to weak memory as it is a voluntary act and there is fraud and deception in it. That is why Shamsi has said, “Tadlees is Haram near the A’immah.” (Muqaddama Usul al-Shaykh al-Muhaddith al-Dehlawi ‘alal Mishkat, pg 2)
Please note, Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه has narrated about 30 Ahadith from Imam Dhuhli رحمة اللہ علیه but has not mentioned the name with which he was famous because there was strict aggression between Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه and Imam Dhuhli رحمة اللہ علیه. In Tareekh Ibn Khallikan vol.2 pg 134, it is stated, “Imam Bukhari narrated from Imam Dhuhli in 30 places and has not mentioned his name anywhere. He should have said, ‘Muhammad bin Yahya Dhuhli narrated to me’ but instead said ‘Muhammad narrated to me.’ And in some places he has mentioned him as Muhammad bin ‘Abdullah’ (‘Abdullah was the name of his grandfather) and in some places he attributed it to his great grandfather.”

5. Darqutni and Hakim رحمة اللہ علیھما have said that Imam Bukhari’s رحمة اللہ علیه narrating Hadith from Ishaq bin Muhammad bin Ismail has been considered to be something with defect. In Muqaddama Fathul Bari pg 451 it is stated, “Darqutni and Hakim said that there is an allegation on Bukhari in narration of Hadith.”
Darqutni and Hakim رحمة اللہ علیھما mean that Ishaq bin Muhammad has been considered trustworthy by Bukhari whereas he is weak. He could not differentiate between Thiqah and Da’eef. And Isma’il رحمة اللہ علیه has shown astonishment that Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه considers the Munqata’ narration of Abu Salih Juhani as Sahih but considers Mutassil as Da’eef. It is written in Muqaddama Fathul Bari pg 483, “Ismail accused Bukhari and was surprised that why does Bukhari consider the Ahadith of Abu Salih Juhani as evidence when it is not Muttassil.”
He added, “It is more astonishing that Bukhari considers Munqata’ Hadith as authority and Mutassil as Da’eef.”

6. Thahabi رحمة اللہ علیه has also shown bewilderment on some of his works. He writes in the biography of Usayd bin Zayd al-Jamal, “It is astonishing that Bukhari considers him to be Da’eef yet narrates from him.” What can one say about the memory of a person who considers a narrator as weak and yet narrates from him in Asahhul Kutub!

Those who object should do some justice. If Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه is weak due to the Jarh of Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه then why would Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه not be Majruh on the basis of the Jarh of Ibn Mandah رحمة اللہ علیه and Dhuhli رحمة اللہ علیه?

7. By the yardstick used by those who object (on Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه), Imam Bukhari himself is proven to be Majruh. Thus what effect can the Jarh of a Majruh have on Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه?
It is sad that Ghair Muqallideen attack Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه due to mere jealousy and do not realize that they live in glass houses. If Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه will be called Da’eef, then all the Muhaditheen of the world will become Da’eef and rejected in matters of Hadith.

Note: It should be clear that these Jarh have been noted down just to answer the opponents. This is just how Mawlana Shah ‘Abdul ‘Aziz Muhaddith Dehlawi, in his book “Tohfa” has adopted an offensive position (as opposed to defensive) against Shi’a. Otherwise, in truth, our Aqeedah is that Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة اللہ علیه and Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه are trustworthy, truthful, just, with strong memory and devout worshippers (of Allah). None of them is Majruh. And Hadith narrated by them is accepted. The reasons due to which we do not accept the Jarh on Imam Bukhari رحمة اللہ علیه are the same due to which we do not accept the Jarh on Imam Abu Hanifa.

Wa Salamu 'Alaykum.

Monday, 9 April 2012

Sayyid Ahmad Shahid & The `Ulama-e-Su'u.

The Jihad of Sayyid Ahmad Shahid and the ‘Ulama-e-Su`u. 

Sayyid Abu’l Hasan ‘Ali al-Nadwi(rah) writes in “Sayyid Ahmad Shahid” about the British intrigues and techniques to defeat the Jihad of Sayyid Ahmad(rah)
He states on pg. 106: “The British, however, were not slow to realize that any attempt to stamp out the reformist movement by persecution alone was bound to fan the zeal of the Muslim populace to flame and array the whole community on their side. The ruling circles held the view that all attempts by the Muslims to return to the first principles of their faith involved a revolt against the ruling power. (Indian Musalmans, p. 76) 
And nothing could suit the purpose better than to defame the Sayyid as a prophet preaching a new religion (Indian Musalmans, pp. 51-54) and his followers as Wahhabis who had, by that time been sufficiently besmirched by the Orientalists (Carsten Nisbuhr’s Description de la Arabia) and hired clerics (‘Ulama) and were looked down upon by the illiterate Muslim masses of India as sacrilegious barbarians. 
A counter propaganda against the followers of the Sayyid was started and fataawa against the Jihad were obtained and circulated (Rajendra Prasad; Indian Divided, p. 94. Also see Calcutta Review and the article “Wahabeeism” by Reilly in the Times, London, dated Feb 27 and Mar 1, 1871), some of which have been quoted by Hunter (Indian Musalmans, p. 147).
Then the Shaykh gives the names of some of the scholars who gave fatawa and ran a smear campaign against the Sayyid. These are:
Nawab Abdul Latif of Calcutta.
Maulwi Karamat ‘Ali Kajgavi of Jaunpur (Rafidi Shi’a). Not to be mistaken for Hadrat Mawlana Karamat 'Ali Jaunpuri who was a follower of Sayyid Ahmad.
Maulwi Chirag ‘Ali (Aligarh Movement).
Maulwi Nazir Ahmad (Urdu Litterateur and Hanafi ‘Alim).
Maulwi Fadl Rasul Badayuni ( Hanafi Mubtadi’ and British agent).
Maulwi Muhammad Husain Batalvi (Ahl Hadith).
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Qadiani (Apostate). (Names mentioned in book end here)
In addition to this, some other scholars who opposed the Jihad were:
Syed Ahmed Khan (Modernist).
Maulwi Nazir Husain Dehlawi (Ahl Hadith).
Nawab Siddiq Hasan Khan (Ahl Hadith). 
‘Alaykum Salam.

Thursday, 5 April 2012

Green Clothing.

Green Clothing in Islam:
The wearing of green clothing was greatly liked by Rasulullah (saws) to such an extent that Anas says, “Green was the colour most liked by Rasulullah.” (Narrated by Tabarani in Al-Awsat)
A number of narrations regarding Nabi wearing green are mentioned in Subulul Huda war Rashad (vol 7 pg 312)
‘Allama ibn Battal, Ibn Hajar and Munawi have all mentioned that the clothing of the inhabitants of Jannah will be green. This can be deduced from the Ayah, “The inhabitants of Paradise will wear green clothing.” (Surah Kahf, v.31)
‘Allama Tabari narrated that the Khalifa al Ma’mun and his entire army wore green attire; to such an extent that even their caps were green.” Tarikh al Tabari
(This part was taken from Mufti Husain Kadodia's, 'Crown of a Believer')

Green color worn by women in the time of Nabi(saws):
Imam Bukhari narrated in his Sahih: Narrated Umm Khalid bint Khalid:
The Prophet (saws) was given some clothes including a black Khamisa. The Prophet (saws) said, "To whom shall we give this to wear?" The people kept silent whereupon the Prophet (saws) said, "Fetch Umm Khalid for me." I was brought carried (as I was small girl at that time). The Prophet took the Khamisa in his hands and made me wear it and said, "May you live so long that your dress will wear out and you will mend it many times." On the Khamisa there were some green or pale designs (The Prophet saw these designs) and said, "O Umm Khalid! This is beautiful." 7:72:713.

He also narrated: Narrated 'Ikrima:
"Rifa'a divorced his wife whereupon 'Abdur Rahman bin Az-Zubair Al-Qurazi married her. 'Aisha said that the lady (came), wearing a green veil (and complained to her (Aisha) of her husband …..till the end." 7:72:715.

The Prophet’s wearing green:
Narrated 'Aisha:
When Allah's Apostle died, he was covered with a Hibra Burd (green square decorated garment). (Sahih al Bukhari)

From Abu Rimtha ‘I went with my father to Rasulullah (saws) and I saw that he had on him two green cloaks”. (Abu Dawood)
Salamu 'alaykum.

Wednesday, 4 April 2012

Funny Conversation: Al Mansur & Abu Dulamah.

Al Salamu 'Alaykum.
It is narrated that Abu Dulamah visited Al Mansur (the 'Abbasid Khalifa) while dressed in the uniform that Mansur had ordered them to wear i.e a tall, black cap, a cloak with the following Qur'anic verse engraved on the back: "Allah is sufficient for you against them. He is the All-Seeing, the All-Knowing.", and with his sword hanging from his waist (the normal practice of the Arabs being to hang the sword around the neck). 
The following conversation ensued:
Al Mansur: How are you, O Abu Dulamah?
Abu Dulamah: Not well at all, O Amir al Mu'minin!
Al Mansur: Why is that?
Abu Dulamah: What do you expect from one whose face is in the middle of his clothes (due to the topi), whose sword is in his posterior and who has thrown the Qur'an behind his back?
Al Mansur was greatly amused by this retort and immediately ordered that the uniform be changed. (Tafsir Qurtubi)
Adapted from Mufti Husain Kadodia's "The Crown of a Believer".

Friday, 30 March 2012

'Abd al Rahman al Sufi & the Andromeda Galaxy.

Al Salamu 'Alaykum.

While reading about the Andromeda (pic above) Galaxy (the nearest neighbor of our own Milky way), I came across this reference to a Muslim astronomer on the net:

In the venerable Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning, Richard Hinckley Allen noted that: "... the Great Nebula, the Queen of the Nebulae, ..., is said to have been known as far back as A.D. 905; was described by [Abd-al-Rahman] Al Sufi as the Little Cloud before 986; and appeared on a Dutch star-map of 1500."

Some details about him:
Abd-al-Rahman Al Sufi (December 7, 903 - May 25, 986 A.C)Abd-al-Rahman Al Sufi ( according to R.H. Allen (1899) - Abd al Rahman Abu al Husain, sometimes referred to as Azophi) was living at the court of the Emir Adud al-Daula in Isfahan (Persia), and working on astronomical studies based on Greek work, especially the Almagest of Ptolemy. He contributed several corrections to Ptolemy's star list, in particular he did own brightness/magnitude estimates which frequently deviated from those in Ptolemy's work. Also, he was the first to attempt to relate the Greek with the traditional arabic star names and constellations, which was difficult as these constellations were completely unrelated and overlapped in a complicated way.
Al Sufi published his famous "Book of Fixed Stars" in 964 (Al Sufi, 964), describing much of his work, both in textual descriptions and pictures. In his descriptions and pictures of Andromeda, he included "A Little Cloud" which is actually the Andromeda Galaxy M31. He mentions it as lying before the mouth of a Big Fish, an Arabic constellation. This "cloud" was apparently commonly known to the Isfahan astronomers, very probably before 905 AD.
In this book, he probably also cataloged the Omicron Velorum cluster IC 2391 as a "nebulous star", and an additional "nebulous object" in Vulpecula, a cluster or asterism now known as Al Sufi's or Brocchi's Cluster, or Collinder 399. Moreover, he mentions the Large Magellanic Cloud as Al Bakr, the White Ox, of the southern Arabs as it is invisible from Northern Arabia because of its southern latitude.
Al Sufi's observations were not known in Europe at the time of the invention of the telescope, so that the Andromeda Nebula M31 was independently rediscovered by Simon Marius in 1612 with a moderate telescope.
The astronomical community has honored Al Sufi by naming a Moon Crater after him; Moon Crater Azophi is at 22.1S, 12.7E and 47.0 km in diameter.

Nebulous Objects in Al Sufi's Book of the Fixed Stars1. [h and Chi Per (NGC 869/884), Ptolemy No. 191]

"The first star [in Perseus] is the little cloud .. situated on the right hand." 2. [M44 (Praesepe, NGC 2632), Ptolemy No. 444]

"The first of the stars [in Cancer] is the little patch which resembles a small cloud surrounded by four stars which are found - with the patch being in the middle - two in fromt and two behind." 3. [M7 (NGC 6475), Ptolemy No. 567]

"The first of the stars external to the figure [of Scorpius] is the nebulosity following the sting; mag 4-5." 4. [Ptolemy No. 577, asterism of Nu1 and Nu2 Sgr]

"The eighth star of Sagittarius is the cloudy star, which is also double, in the eye." 5. [Ptolemy No. 734, asterism of Lambda, Phi1 and Phi2 Ori]

"The first star of the Giant [Orion] is the cloud which is in the head and which is composed of three stars." 6. [Cr 399, including 4 and 5 Vul]

".. a little cloud situated to the north of two stars in the notch of Sagitta." 7. [M31 (Andromeda Galaxy, NGC 224)]

"The Arabs recognize two series of stars surrounding the figure of a large Fish below the throat of the Camel. These stars belong partly to this constellation [Andromeda] and partly to the northern Fish which Ptolemy describes as the twelfth figure of the Zodiac. These two series begin at a little Cloud situated very close to the 14th star which is found at the right side [of And] and which belongs to the three which are above the girdle." 8. [IC 2391 (Omicron Velorum Cluster)]

".. above the 37th star [Delta Navis], at a distance of one cubit, there is a nebulous star."

Schjellerup (1874) identifies No. 6 as "4 and 5 Vul," No. 7 as the Andromeda "Nebula," and assumes No. 8 is John Herschel's h 3140 (NGC 2669), which however is non-existent; IC 2391 was not recognized at that time (1874).

Wa Salamu 'Alaykum.

Monday, 26 March 2012

Asma` ur Rijaal.

Al Salamu 'Alaykum.
In his introduction to Hafidh Ibn Hajar's Al Isabah fee Tamyeez_is_ Sahaaba, Dr A.Sprenger has paid a glowing tribute to the scholars of the Traditions (hadith):
"The glory of the literature of the Mohammedans is its literary biography. There is no nation, nor has there been any which like them has during twelve centuries recorded the life of every man of letters. If the biographical records of the Musalmans were collected, we should probably have accounts of the lives of half a million of distinguished persons. and it would be found that there is not a decennium of their history, nor a place of importance which has not its representatives." Sprenger vol.1, pg.1.
Taken from 'Ali Miyan Nadwi's "Saviors of Islamic Spirit", chapter on the Traditionists and Jurists of Islam with minor spelling changes.

Wednesday, 21 March 2012

Singer Shiraz Quits Music For Islam.

Al Salamu 'Alaykum.
Heart warming news. Pakistani pop-singer, Shiraz Uppal has left music for practicing Islam. 
In an interview he said, "Some media people sarcastically remarked to me “You must have done a couple of trips to Raiwind already.” I told them I have never been to Raiwind. I am not affiliated with any group or sect. All I want to do now is to read the Qurʾān and Ahadith, to follow the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him)'s example. I did meet Shaykh Zulfiqar Naqshbandi four years back and took a sort of bait with him but he never asked me to quit music. I recently met him again and asked him why didn't you ask me to quit. He replied that when I met you four years back I knew you had this desire in your heart so I made du‘ā’ for you."
May Allah give him istiqaama and keep him on the straight path.
Wa salam.

Tuesday, 13 March 2012

When A Hadith Is Sahih, It Is My Madhhab.

Al Salamu 'Alaykum.

Imam Nawawi said in Sharh al Muhaddhab:
It is narrated from Al Shafi’i that he said:
“When you find in my book (anything) contrary to the Sunnah of Allah’s Messenger (saws), then accept the Sunnah of Allah’s Messenger (saws) and leave my opinion.”
And it was narrated from him, “When a hadith is sahih contrary to my opinion, act upon the Hadith and leave my opinion,” or he said, “Then it is my madhhab”. The purport of this has been narrated with different wordings. 1:104.

Nawawi said:

Our (Shafi’i) companions have acted on this in the issue of tathwib and the condition of being released from ihram due to the excuse of illness and other (issues) besides this which are known in the books of the madhhab. The meaning of what Shafi’i said is not that everyone who sees a sahih Hadith can say, “This is the madhhab of Al Shafi’i and act on its outward (meaning). This is only for those who have reached the rank of ijtihad in the madhhab, the description of which has proceeded or close to it. It is (also) a condition that it dominates his mind that Al Shafi’i did not come across this Hadith or did not know its authenticity and this is only (possible) after studying all the books of Shafi’i and the likes of them from the books of his companions who took from him and what resembles them. This is a difficult condition and rarely does one acquire this (qualification). We only mentioned this condition because Al Shafi’i avoided acting on the outward of many hadiths which he saw and knew but a proof was erected before him invalidating it or abrogating it or specifying or interpreting it etc,

Shaykh Abu ‘Amr said: Acting on the outward of what Al Shafi’i said is not easy so it is not permissible for every jurist to independently act on what he believes is proof from Hadith. From those who trod this path from the Shafi’is in acting on a Hadith which Shafi’i left deliberately although he knew its authenticity due to an obstacle which he comprehended and was hidden from others, is Abu’l Walid Musa ibn Abi’l Jarud of those who accompanied Shafi’i who said, “The cupper and the cupped have broken the fast” is sahih so I say, “Al Shafi’s opinion is that the cupper and the cupped have broken the fast,” and this was not accepted from Abul Walid because Shafi’i left it though he knew it is authentic because it was abrogated according to him. Al Shafi’i clarified its abrogation and adduced proof against it and you will see this in Kitab al Siyam if Allah wills.

Shaykh Abu ‘Amr said: “Whoever from the Shafi’is finds a Hadith contradicting his madhhab, it will be deliberated; If the tools of ijtihad are perfected in him, absolutely or in this particular subject or issue, he will have complete independence in acting on it; and if it is not perfected and if it is difficult for him to oppose that Hadith after he researched , and he did not find a satisfactory answer contrary to it, he may act upon it if an independent Imam besides al Shafi’ acted upon it and this will be an excuse for him to leave the madhhab of his Imam at this point.” What he said is excellent and stipulated. Allah knows Best. 1:104-6.

I say: This is exactly what we mentioned before in refutation of Ibn al Qayyim.

In Radd al Muhtar, (Ibn ‘Abidin) narrated from ‘Allama al Biri from Sharh al Hidaya from Ibn Shahnah, “’When a Hadith is Sahih, it is my madhhab.’ Ibn ‘Abd al Barr related this from Abu Hanifa and other Imams and Imam al Sha’rani also transmitted this from the four Imams. It is not hidden that this is for one qualified to examine the texts and has knowledge of its non-abrogated from its abrogated, so when the scholars of the madhhab deliberate on an evidence and act upon it, its attribution to the madhhab is sound due to it issuing by permission from the founder of the madhhab, since there is no doubt that if he knew the weakness of his proof, he would go back on it and follow the stronger proof. For this the verifier (ibn al Humam) refuted some scholars when they issued fatwa according to the opinions of the two Imams (Abu Yusuf and Muhammad) because the opinion of the Imam is not rejected except when his evidence is weak.”   

Al Din al Qayyim, pg 92-93.